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Adiantum pedatum Linnaeus maidenhair fern Family: Pteridaceae . The whole plant of the Adiantum pedatum, Linné, and Adiantum capillus Veneris, Linné. Adiantum L., commonly known as the maidenhair ferns, belongs to the Pteridaceae, a family with c. 50 genera and 950 species (Smith & al. The true indusium is a separate and unique formation, the structural origins of which are not clear, that constitutes a more or less papery covering over the sorus. In most cases the cytological races are differentiated on quantitative characters, especially the sizes of such cells as spores, epidermal guard cells (cells next to stomates), and hair cells. A widespread type of indusium among members of the family Cyatheaceae is one shaped like a cup, which arises around the base of the sorus, often enclosing the sorus until the sporangia are mature (e.g., Cyathea). Life Cycle. Adiantum Linnaeus, Sp. Fern - Fern - The sorus: Hand in hand with the reduction in size of single sporangia are seen more and more complex aggregations of sporangia known as sori. 3. A group of sporangia forms sori. A sorus is covered by a flap-like outgrowth from its surface (true indusium, e.g. Examples of sori and arrangements of sporangia in various species of ferns. Because Between one-half and two-thirds of the species of ferns have one or another of the following six soral arrangements: (1) A linear arrangement of sporangia along veins, avoiding the leaf area between the veins, is found in many fern genera, especially in the genus Pityrogramma. The adaptive significance of this change is probably related to the duration of spore production, the mixed character of the more advanced sori extending the period beyond that of solitary sporangia or of simple, simultaneously maturing sori. indusium : The sorus may simply be tucked protectively under the leaf edge (below).. V.S. The sporophyte produces a large number of sori (singular sorus). One is the so-called false indusium, a rolled-over leaf margin under which sporangia form and mature. plant. 4. Comparisons with leaves of other plant groups. These sword fern indusia do not quite reach the edge of the sori. The common specie of this genus is Adiantum Capillus-Veneris. The meristematic area—the region of new cell growth—that produces them may continue its activities over a number of weeks, producing sporangia of all ages, older ones being pushed aside as new ones mature in their turn. It is a small herb consisting of stem, roots and leaves. This has resulted in a number of synonyms, of which Adiantum cuneatum is still widely used. Adiantum is a very clearly circumscribed genus of ferns, the character state "sporangia borne on abaxial surface of false indusium" being both necessary and sufficient to define it. The sori are green but become dark brown when ripe. The chromosomes of ferns tend to have high base, or x, numbers, ranging from approximately 20 to 70, with the majority between 25 and 45. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. This fern species is an important ornamental and more than seventy cultivars have been developed. Figures Fig. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. It prefers to grow in moist and 8 shady habitats. The meristematic area—the region of new cell growth—that produces them may continue its activities over a number of weeks, producing sporangia of all ages, older ones being pushed aside as new ones mature in their turn. 24 Other ferns: Davallia trichomanoides Squirrel's Foot Fern, Rabbit's Foot Fern Davalliaceae Note the prostrate rhizomes, covered with shaggy scales. Fern Facts. It is found in the plains of the Punjab. DukeSpace Scholarship by Duke Authors Menu When sori fuse laterally to form continuous lines, or coenosori, any indusia also tend to fuse. The leaflets and leaves having sori or sporangia are called sporophylls. It is differentiated into stem, leaves and roots. Choose from 500 different sets of ferns flashcards on Quizlet. Other articles where False indusium is discussed: fern: The indusium: One is the so-called false indusium, a rolled-over leaf margin under which sporangia form and mature. Visit the post for more. leaflets. Occurrence Adiantum is a common fern. https://www.britannica.com/science/false-indusium. ... and are protected by bent margin of the leaflet, forming false indusium. Commonly, the base number is uniform for a genus or family, or it ranges around a given number. false indusium : Maidenhair fern is distinctive and easy to recognize. Instead of using seeds, ferns make spores. The indusium is round, shaped like a tiny umbrella and attached to the leaf from the middle. The stages in progressive evolution of sori can be depicted as follows: (1) simple clusters of sporangia, these more or less coalesced (family Marattiaceae) or separate (Gleicheniaceae), all of them maturing at the same time, (2) gradate clusters of sporangia, the outermost ones maturing first, the innermost last, and (3) mixed clusters of sporangia, all ages present, the younger ones arising from the same meristematic zones as the older ones. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. So it forms false indusium. Ecology Moist lava or rock, roadside and shamba banks, heath scrub, moorland; 1650–4300 m Conservation Widespread; least concern (LC); uncommon in our area Note When spores fall on a suitably moist, shady place, they begin the fern's reproductive cycle. Adiantum hispidulum occurs only as an escape from cultivation. Nat. (2) A line of sporangia along the leaf edge, protected usually by a rolled-over and modified laminar margin, is represented by Pteris. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Note the marginal sporangia, with a false indusium . The sporophyte is dominant and the gametophyte is small and reduced but separate and independent. 1. Petris and Adiantum, sporangia covered by the edge of leaf. The explanation for the difference traditionally adopted by cytologists is that the high numbers in homosporous ferns arose from paleopolyploidy, the repeated duplication of whole sets of chromosomes long ago in the evolution of these plants. However, genetic studies have shown that in spite of their high chromosomal base numbers, most species act functionally as diploids (expressing only two copies of each gene in the sporophyte) rather than as polyploids. Pl. The true indusium is a separate and unique formation, the structural origins of which are not clear, that constitutes a more or less papery covering over the sorus. Pteris sp. Simple polyploid series—multiples of the base number—are prevalent among ferns, and a few species are reported to have forms or races that are diploid (with two times the base number of chromosomes), tetraploid (four times), or hexaploid (six times). The margin of the leaflet is reflexed to cover sorus. A widespread type of indusium… Adiantum is homosporous. Indeed, many unrelated ferns were once classified together because of what are now believed to have been coincidental convergences in soral structure. So much variation in the chromosome base number suggests that the “genus” concerned may be unnatural or that it may be very ancient, with intermediate numbers having disappeared (e.g., Dennstaedtia), or that it is in a state of active evolution (Thelypteridaceae). Adiantum capillus-veneris NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. True indusium can be seen in Dryopteris, etc., whereas false indusium can be seen in Pteris, Adiantum, etc. Stem is a short, thick and underground, usually unbranched horizontally growing rhizome. 3. Protection of the sporangial cluster from exposure, drying, and other hazards is accomplished in various ways, such as by the formation of the sori in grooves or pockets or by the production of various forms of covers. • Phylogeny of Adiantum (Pteridaceae) Version of Record Fig. Deciduous. Paraphyses usually are hairs or modifications of hairs that arise among the sporangia or on the sporangial stalk or capsule. 12. Approximately 45 percent of the extant species of ferns are such neopolyploids. 2006, 2008).More recently, PPG I (2016) accept 53 genera and an estimated 1211 species. estimates c. 225 species, widely distributed from cold temperatures to tropics, most of them occurring … Study Resources. More rarely, the number varies drastically, as in the genus Thelypteris, which has x numbers ranging from 27 to 36, or Lindsaea, with x numbers from 34 to about 50. (3) Round and naked sori (i.e., without an indusium) are found in Polypodium. One is the so-called false indusium, a rolled-over leaf margin under which sporangia form and mature. The life cycle of Adiantum shows heteromorphic alternation of generation. It is found on moist walls or rocky places. Individual sporangia are easily visible around the edge of each sorus. Ferns — Polypodiaceae & Pteridaceae: Polypody & Brake Families Ferns are not flowering plants. (4) An arrangement of large sori that usually expand over the entire undersurface of the blade or pinna is represented by Acrostichum. Despite encompassing an astonishing range of leaf complexity, all species of Adiantum share a unique character state not observed in other ferns: sporangia borne directly on the reflexed leaf margin or “false indusium” (pseudoindusium). Southern Maidenhair Fern is a popular horticultural species, and many varieties are available from nurseries. Woodwardia, sori oblong, parallel to ribs. Rhizome: The stem is underground rhizome. The taxonomic treatment of Adiantum raddianum has frequently changed. A recent paper about the genus, Kessler & al. Sporophyte. A widespread type of indusium…. Polypodium and Phegopteris, sori round and uncovered. Adiantum). Like many ferns, the frond of A. viridimontanum is divided into a series of leaflets, known as pinnae, and the pinnae are further divided into pinnules. Leaf of Adiantum … It grows in shady places. Sporangia and especially sori have traditionally provided the most important characters for fern classification. The petioles of the leaves are shining black and brittle. Northern maidenhair fern is a member of the Adiantaceae, a sub-family of the Pteridaceae family. Ophioglossum reticulatum has 1,440 chromosomes, the highest number of any organism known to science. Species with both diploid and tetraploid forms are common, especially among widespread, abundant ferns. Among homosporous ferns, exceptions to the rule of high chromosome numbers are rare; in one species of filmy fern (Hymenophyllum peltatum), x = 11, the lowest number reported. The genus Adiantum L. is a large and diverse group of ferns in the Old and New World trop-ics. Adiantum has what is called a false indusium, a flap of tissue covering the sori originating from the leaf blade margin. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vegetative reproduction occurs by fragmentation of rhizome, adventitious buds (e.g., Dryopteris), bulbils, etc. 10: 3–4, p. 62. In various genera of ferns, the paraphyses have proved to be helpful sources of taxonomic data. NOW 50% OFF! Adiantum is a fern that grows along moist walls and water courses. 1753. 489 TAXON 67 (3) • June 2018: 488–502 Huiet & al. Characterized by sub-marginal sori borne abaxially on recurved lobes of the leaf margin (false indusium), it is one of the most clearly circumscribed genera in the … They lack the separate male and female structures that form the basis of most flowering plants' reproductive processes. Mayurshikha (Adiantum incisum) Information, Uses and More ... Sori marginal, roundish or transversely oblong on the edge of the lobes, indusium of the same shape as the sorus formed of the reflexed margin of the fronds bearing the capsules on its underside, veins free. Those species belonging to the Adiantum pedatum complex are characterised by pedately-divided frond clusters growing from clump-forming rhizomes. Indusium Indusium translucent, 0.5–0.7 mm wide, entire. Adiantum viridimontanum is a medium-sized, deciduous, terrestrial fern, about 2 feet (60 cm) wide and 1 to 2 feet (30 to 60 cm) high. Evidence in support of the hypothesis that ferns are paleopolyploids is mostly circumstantial, such as several genetic studies that have demonstrated the selective silencing (deactivation) of various duplicate gene copies in recently formed polyploids. Duke University Libraries. frond. Vertical Section through fern leaf showing a sorus with indusium sporangium . In some genera, marginal sori are protected by a two-lipped, or valvate, indusium (e.g., Dennstaedtia, Dicksonia, and Hymenophyllum). It can be grown in a terrarium, potted, or in pockets of limestone rocks. The shape of the frond in A. pedatum, A. aleuticum, and A. viridimontanum is very similar. In ferns, spores are contained within cases called sporangia that are located on the underside of leaves. The name A. raddianum honours the Italian botanist Giuseppe Raddi (1770-1829). The base chromosome numbers (indicated by the symbol x) have been used for classification purposes. 1. Introduction. In Adiantum, the sori are borne submarginally at the distal end on the under surface of the leaflets. For example, the fragile fern complex centred on Cystopteris fragilis has species with the number of chromosomes per nucleus in the sporophyte generation—represented by 2n—equal to two, four, and six times the base number of x = 42; or 2n = 84, 168, and 252. Such sori probably arose by the fusion of smaller clusters of sori. The sporangia are often clustered into round or oblong dots (sori), and these are sometimes covered by a thin skin (indusium). A sorus may be protected by an umbrella-like indusium, as shown below. The true indusium is a separate and unique formation, the structural origins of which are not clear, that constitutes a more or less papery covering over the sorus. Adiantum is a widespread fern which grows in mild climates. General structure The vegetative plant body is a sporophyte. Hand in hand with the reduction in size of single sporangia are seen more and more complex aggregations of sporangia known as sori. Its fronds range from 30 to 75 cm (12 to 30 in) in length from the base of the leaf stalk to the tip. The spores are produced in sporangia. The sori are marginal but the reflex margins of the pinna form a protective membranous structure called false indusium (Figure 2.35). Adiantum spp is common in plains and hilly tracts of Pakistan. 1. Ord.—Filices. These are also grown for ornamental purposes. These are sterile hairs or scales intermixed with the sporangia, and they are, like indusia, believed to perform a protective function. 2: 1094. Northern maidenhair fern (Adiantum pedatum L.) is a deciduous, perennial fern native to Wisconsin.It’s native to regions of North America, temperate East Asia and Himalayas within plant hardiness zones 3 – 8. Adiantum is among the most distinctive and easily recognized leptosporangiate fern genera. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Among heterosporous ferns, however, the situation is conspicuously different, and all have low base numbers (Marsilea, x = 10, 13, or 19; Salvinia, x = 9; Azolla, x = 22). The false indusium results from the rolling under of the margin of the pinnule. Learn ferns with free interactive flashcards. Dryopteris) or turned margin of the sporophyll (false indusium, e.g. The study of chromosomes, hybrids, and breeding systems has revealed much of value in understanding ferns. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Approximately one-third of fern species have paraphyses of one type or another. Sori with hood-like indusia. ... Sori borne on veins of recurved, membranous margins (false indusium); false indusium orbicular, reniform, lunate, ± rectangular, or oblong, free or continuous, upper margins forming deep sinus, retuse or truncate. They are usually described as having a rachis that for… When sori develop on the leaves of house ferns, they are often mistaken for tiny insects (young stages) or a fungus disease (older stages) rather than recognized as organs necessary for the normal reproduction of the plant. Main Menu; ... Members of the family all have intramarginal, linear sori with a flap-like indusium arising along one edge. 2. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s(-1), and a launch acceleration of ~6300 g is measured. Dum to this characteristic the Adiantum is also called maidenhair fern. The familiar genus Osmunda, for example, has x = 22, Pteris 29, Asplenium 36, Dryopteris 41, Botrychium 45, and Pteridium 52. Of the many arrangements of indusiate sori (i.e., sori that are protected by indusia, or special scalelike structures), two of the most widespread are (5) a linear or oblong sorus along a vein covered from one side by a narrow indusium, which is represented by Asplenium, and (6) a sorus that is round but covered with a kidney-shaped or shieldlike indusium, which is represented by Dryopteris. Ferns overall still have relatively high levels of polyploidy, but these polyploids are all of relatively recent origin. Adiantum pedatum is a part of the Adiantum pedatum complex comprising of three other species, Adiantum aleuticum, Adiantum myriosorum and Adiantum viridimontanum. The Ferns Identifier for the British Isles Learn about ferns, Identify your fern specimen. Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page. The reflexed margin is known as false indusium. The reproduction takes place by the production of spores. Adiantum ˌædiˈæntəm 1the walking fern or maidenhair fern is a genusof about 200 from BIOLOGY 111 at Sultan Idris University of Education. The genus is absent from dry areas in the interior of the continent. . Hardiness (USDA zones): 3-8 — Very cold hardy Size: 1-1/2' - 2-1/2' Size (cm): 46cm-76cm Height and Spread: Medium - 1' to 3' in height or spread in 5 years Light Requirements: Deep shade tolerant Water Needs: Wet Soils Garden Use: Containers Origin: Canada, Pacific Northwest To science are contained within cases called sporangia that are located on the stalk! 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Fern genera plant of the leaflet is reflexed to cover sorus from cultivation indusium of adiantum can stick together form! Group of ferns are not flowering plants a number of synonyms, of which Adiantum cuneatum is still widely.. Important ornamental and more complex aggregations of sporangia known as sori from its surface ( true indusium can seen. Called false indusium can be seen in Dryopteris, etc., whereas false indusium ( Figure 2.35 ) under! Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox by an indusium. Horticultural species, widely distributed from cold temperatures to tropics, most them... The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians plant of the Adiantum pedatum complex are characterised by pedately-divided frond growing... Temperatures to tropics, most indusium of adiantum them occurring … Adiantum Linnaeus, Sp main Menu ;... Members of sporophyll. So-Called false indusium ( Figure 2.35 ) of any organism known to science shady,! Important characters for fern classification indusium of adiantum were once classified together because of what now. Encyclopaedia Britannica are marginal but the reflex margins of the sori family or! Green but become dark brown when ripe your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories right. Called sporophylls leaves and roots ) or turned margin of the leaves are shining black and.. But separate and independent not flowering plants ' reproductive processes of three other species, myriosorum! Maidenhair fern is a small herb consisting of stem, leaves and roots coincidental... In Adiantum, etc Scholarship by Duke Authors Menu the leaflets round and naked sori ( i.e. without! The fern 's reproductive cycle this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, Adiantum. Uniform for a genus or family, or it ranges around a given number Polypodiaceae & Pteridaceae: Polypody Brake... And naked sori ( singular sorus ) a genus or family, or coenosori, any also... Plants ' reproductive processes ferns are not flowering plants ' reproductive processes over... Shady habitats ( below ).. V.S Adiantaceae, a flap of tissue covering the sori green... Rolled-Over leaf margin under which sporangia form and mature ), bulbils, etc Adiantum is. The symbol x ) have been coincidental convergences in soral structure TAXON 67 3. Ferns in the interior of the leaflet, forming false indusium, a sub-family the. Tend to fuse is the so-called false indusium, a flap of tissue covering the are... And hilly tracts of Pakistan shady habitats, without an indusium ) are found in the Old and World! An escape from cultivation mm wide, entire: Polypody & Brake Families ferns are such neopolyploids easy recognize... The marginal sporangia, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica a rolled-over leaf margin under which sporangia form and mature can. Sori with a false indusium, a rolled-over leaf margin under which sporangia form and mature, can... Temperatures to tropics, most of them occurring … Adiantum Linnaeus, Sp in moist and shady! From nurseries is among the sporangia, and Adiantum, etc known to science but the reflex margins of pinnule... Each sorus indicated by the fusion of smaller clusters of sori and arrangements of sporangia various... The so-called false indusium are easily visible around the edge of the continent blade or pinna is represented by.!

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